Vattenfall’s CCS strategy
Hubertus Altmann, Göran Lindgren and Uwe Burchhardt
To introduce CCS technologies, Vattenfall is currently keeping a keen eye on all CO2 capture processes which will be both available and commercially realisable in the medium term. These are IGCC, Oxyfuel and post combustion. Necessary practical experience could be gained by building own pilot plants. By participating in several European CCS projects (ENCAP, CASTOR, CCPilot100+), Vattenfall was also able to gain detailed knowledge about post-combustion technology. CCS demonstration plants are to be erected in Jänschwalde (Germany) and Magnum phase 2 (Netherland). These projects will also comprise the entire chain of CCS including CO2 storage.
Pre-conditions for CCS
Johannes Heithoff, Georg Gasteiger, Bernd Eck and Jörg Linsenmaier
Before Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology can be introduced in a commercially succsessful manner, both technical requirements have to be met and an adequate regulatory setting with suitable economic conditions has to exist. RWE Power, AE&E, BASF and Linde are focussing their development in lignite-fired power plants on the optimisation of power plant processes by pre-drying lignite with the aid of WTA® technology (fluidised-bed drying with internal waste heat utilisation) and by integrating advanced high-performance flue gas desulphurisation. The overall efficiency of lignite-based electricity generation is to be increased to over 40 % while capturing 90 % of CO2 from the entire volumetric flue gas flow.
Performance improvement EnBW power plant fleet
Martin Giehl, Thomas Sabel and Martin Käß
EnBW Kraftwerke AG developed with the so-called POWER initiative - POWER means Project for Optimisation of Efficiency, Performance and Reduction of Emissions - a catalogue of measures to optimise existing power plants. The publication deals with selected examples describing measures for performance increase successfully realised at EnBW Kraftwerke AG. In addition, in the frame of the POWER initiative, different holistic optimisation methods were developed.
The severe Tohoku Seaquake in Japan and its impact on the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant
Bernhard Kuczera and Ludger Mohrbach
On Friday, March 11, 2011, Japan experienced a natural disaster of inconceivable dimensions. A gigantic earthquake with an intensity of 9.0 on the logarithmic scale caused a tsunami wave of a maximum height of 23 m which flooded the coastal region where four nuclear power plants are located. The paper will reflect on the accident and countermeasures taken by the utility until editorial deadline.
The defence-in-depth safety concept: Comparison between the Fukushima Daiichi units and German nuclear power units
The accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, caused by the devastating tsunami on March 11, 2011 has raised questions worldwide about the safety of nuclear power plants. The affected plants belong to the oldest generation of NPPs built in Japan. The paper describes and evaluates the key features of the event sequence and actions taken at the affected plants. The safety reserves of German plants, compared to Fukushima, are also addressed.
Storage technologies compensating for fluctuating power generation
Mathilde Bieber, Roland Marquardt and Peter Moser
Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (ACAES) can be used as an important means to store electricity in large scale and without additional CO2 emissions. A new project with the acronym ADELE involving industrial partners and funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology started in 2009 to develop the ACAES technology up to market maturity. The energy storage is mainly targeting load levelling applications. It will be able to store between 1 and 2 GWh of electricity with a power output of approximately 300 MW.
Design and operation of a 1 MWth carbonate and chemical looping CCS test rig
Alexander Galloy, Jochen Ströhle and Bernd Epple
Several research activities are currently under way in the field of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Technische Universität Darmstadt is developing two different processes: the chemical- and carbonate looping process. A 1-MW-test rig was erected for further analysis of these processes. Commissioning has almost been completed and the first carbonate looping test campaign has been performed. First results are very promising.
Chemical basics of spray tower’s development for separation of CO2 from flue gases - new process - known technology
Kevin Brechtel, Anke Schäffer, Paula Gallindo Cifre, Oliver Seyboth and Günther Scheffknecht
Post-combustion capture by amine scrubbing is one technology for CO2 capture from flue gases. The basic process is well known from industrial applications and is suitable for retrofitting to power plants. Besides the development of new solvents, the IFK is currently investigating the use of open spray towers as alternative concepts to packed columns. Therefore, different operational parameters for several solvents have been determined within lab scale tests. Based on these data and the knowledge from wet FGD systems show that the use of spray towers for CO2 capture is a promising alternative.
Potassium carbonate scrubber for removing carbon dioxide from flue and product gases of power plant and industrial processes as a robust alternative to amine treatment
Andrew Berry, Egon Erich, Dieter Bathen, Stephan Telge, Hans Fahlenkamp, Hans-Peter Domels, Klaus Kesseler, Andreas Igelbüscher and Ernst Schlusemann
When new conventional power plants are constructed and built, it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in order to meet the climate protection targets. The development of possible technologies for capturing CO2 is the subject of intensive current research efforts. Usually the principle of amine scrubbing, which is a well-known process in petrochemistry, serves as a procedural basis for the separation of CO2. However, difficulties occur when transferring this method to power plant conditions. The paper describes the process of potash scrubbing as a possible alternative to CO2 cleaning of flue gases as well as of process gases. The results of a research project are introduced. Laboratory studies and pilot-scale experiments also embraced the separation of carbon dioxide with a mobile absorption system.
The PSFBD process: a key technology for future lignite-fired power plants - Pressurised Steam Fluidised Bed Drying from the test facility to a large-scale power plant
Teklay W. Asegehegn, Stefan Lechner, Matthias Merzsch, Matthias Schreiber, Rico Silbermann, Hans Joachim Krautz and Olaf Höhne
Pressurised Steam Fluidised Bed Drying (PSFBD) of lignite was developed to make future power plants more efficient whilst simultaneously reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The first test facility was developed by the Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus and commissioned in 2002. A second plant is currently in operation at Vattenfall’s pilot plant. Both the plants delivered valuable results of more than eight years research and development.
Analysis and forecast of maintenance in power plants
Thomas Kittan, Matthias Herold and Carsten Baumann
A comprehensive assessment of the “Schwarze Pumpe” power station has given insights into the effectiveness of maintenance measures and facilitated the budgeting of future maintenance for four additional power station units. Vattenfall commissioned experts from TÜV SÜD Industrie Service to carry out third-party analysis of its maintenance measures and forecast future maintenance budgets. The aim was to obtain a valid data set enabling the detailed assessment of past and future activities and pointing out potentials for improvement.
The O&M-conception for the offshore-windfarm EnBW Baltic 1
EnBW Erneuerbare Energien GmbH has been developing and realising projects in the field of wind, in order to cover a total of 20 % by renewables-based generation by the year 2020. In April 2011 the wind farm “EnBW Baltic 1” was taken into operation. The uncrewed farm is located 16 km off the shore at a water depth of 16 m. For economical and technical reasons, maintenance activities will be based at the nearest harbour of Barhöft with services and spare parts store. Like all other generation plants, the wind farm “EnBW Baltic 1” will also be controlled and observed from the Barhöft control room.
Extension of water treatment at the Boxberg site
Adelja Markert and Hans Riemers
In the year 1999, new water treatment plants were built in the Boxberg power station, supplying two generating units of 500 MW in unit III (erected in 1980) and a 900 MW generating unit (date of operation 2000). The capacities of the existing water treatment plants are exhausted. Since the planning stage of the new generating unit R, the water supply systems on-site have been subject to extensive examinations.
Seven sins of steam sampling
The paper focuses on sampling and analysis stations alone, as they are commonly purchased by OEMs as turn-key sub-systems. There are many ways to realise these functional elements but in the end the proper arrangement and interaction of these elements is essential to obtain valid on-line measurements and a user-friendly system. Design flaws and possible alternatives are shown.
State of the art of flue gas desulphurisationin power plants
Published measured data from modern power plants erected in the 80s show little emission concentrations of heavy metal and fine dust particles. Very low emission concentrations are also expected for new power plants, which are in the planning or erection phase, due to the flue gas cleaning stages DENOX, flue gas cooling in air pre-heater, ESP and FGD scrubber. Mercury components are also effectively removed through the combination high-dust SCR plant and FGD absorber.