Environmentally friendly power generation with fossil fuels
The future power generation in Germany will be increasingly influenced by fluctuating wind and photovoltaic sources. Due to the fluctuating power generation and insufficient hydro and biomass capacities, fossil-based generation will still be needed. This conventional power plant fleet equipped with CCS has not only to be flexible in terms of load ramping but also in terms of frequent start-ups and shutdowns.
Flexibility characteristics in control energy markets
Thomas Dymek, Martin Loskand and Alexander Schwery
To offset fluctuations between electricity production and electricity consumption, grid operators require certain amounts of flexible capacity that they can request at short notice as needed. This is particularly reflected in grid service trading, in so-called control energy markets. Power plants as suppliers of control energy have a higher economic value the more flexibly they are able to provide power. Important prerequisites to successful marketing are the technically feasible flexibility, the cost of providing standby capacity and the efficiency of flexible power supply. Pumped-storage power plants have advantages in terms of their flexibility.
Perspectives of the German lignite industry 2011 - Thinking alternatives
Johannes F. Lambertz and George Milojcic
In 2010 the lignite industry developed smoothly. Production amounted to about 169.4 million tonnes and was thus at previous years´ levels. The companies grading-up and preparing lignite had full order books. Despite the well-known benefits of lignite, a controversial debate is being held about the future of lignite in the energy mix. A plea for lignite means assessing this domestic source of energy within the context of chances and benefits and position it as reliable alternative within a long-term energy policy.
Hydro power schemes in an urban environment
Karl Wimmer, Gerald Tscherne and Bertram Draxler
The promotion of renewable energy sources is a mayor target of European energy policy. To achieve the EU 2020 targets, many EU member states will develop their available hydro power potential. The realisation of hydro power schemes in an urban environment becomes an important, challenging task. Based on selected schemes in Austria and Germany, the present paper reports on the requirements for project development, regulatory framework, project execution and operation.
Biomass potentials and possible imports to EU 27
Hubert Röder and Christoph Euringer
Based on recalculation and standardisation by Pöyry, the biomass demand derived from National Renewable Energy Actions Plans (NREAPs) for primary energy use (including bio liquids) is estimated at around 213 Mtoe. This is more than 75 Mtoe than the 138 Mtoe supply originally estimated in the NREAPs. It is shown that NREAPs demand forecasts are too low, and a supply gap of 26 to 38 Mtoe for solid biomass can be expected in EU 27 in 2020.
Pitch systems influence the profitability of wind farms
Helmut Reinke and Fabio Bertolotti
This paper examines the influence of pitch systems on the energy yield and reduction of the total cost of ownership of wind turbines. Of particular relevance to this topic are the areas of simulations, pitch system design and testing, as well as the development of new sensors for optimising profitability. Simulations offer a better understanding of the dynamics and stresses induced on turbine components by pitching, yawing, and other control commands. The paper also examines current developments in the area of new sensor solutions capable of measuring the entire wind field of a wind turbine (WTG), thereby providing wind farm owners with valuable information about the performance of their wind farms.
Combined cycle plants as essential contribution to the integration of renewables into the grid
Christoph Ruchti, Hamid Olia, Peter Marx, Andreas Ehrsam and Wesley Bauver
Increased power generation from renewable sources is challenging the electric power system. The grid as a whole must remain in safe balance. This leads to new requirements for the remaining power generation portfolio, ranging from flexible power plant operation all the way to new technologies for energy storage. Combined cycle power plants are particularly well suited to contribute significantly to meet these requirements. The article is focusing on fast start-up as one aspect of flexible operation.
Operational experience in the material depart-ment (PGE GiEK) of the Turow power plant
Rafael Rajczyk, Pawel Mirek, Roman Walkowiak and Wojciech Nowak
The paper presents the operating experience made in the materials department of the (PGE GiEK) Turow power plant. The first part focuses on the modernisation of the air supply system of boiler 3 and the experience made with biomass co-combustion in a circulating fluidised bed boiler. In the second part of the paper, the experience made with biomass co-combustion in steam generators 5 and 6 (circulating FBC, compact boiler CFB-OE 700) will be outlined.
Recent amendments to the VGB Guideline on the design and construction of cooling towers in power plants
Hans-Jürgen Niemann, Reinhard Harte, Joachim Meyer and Ralf Wörmann
In view of the coming introduction of the European Directives, it was necessary to revise the VGB Guideline on the structural design, computation and execution of cooling towers. The new edition includes the experience of plant and structural design engineers, construction companies, experts for checking and approvals, scientists and operators, and presents the state of the art. Besides, the current developments in concrete technology, the VGB Guideline contains for the first time information about the application of concrete highly resistant against acid attack, which allows dispensing with coating on the inside of the cooling tower shell. Especially the update of specifications concerning wind and temperature as well as safety concept is another issue of the current revision.
State of the art of protection- and strengthening measures on reinforced concrete cooling towers for the operation modes „standard, seawater, flue gas discharge“ and for reinforced concrete chimneys bases on the new guideline VGB R 612e (2010)
Robert Engelfried, Helena Eisenkrein, Henning Scharf and Mario Sonntag
The VGB Guideline 612 had to be edited anew due to the increased demands to be met by the availability of cooling towers and stacks. An important role is played by condition-based retrofit measures and the previous recording of conditions and their analyses. Available high-capacity coating systems offer a lifetime twice as much as previous systems.
Copper deposits in power pressure equipment - Problems in operation and maintenance
In recent years, numerous and more severe problems have occurred in Polish power and co-generation plants with increasingly large amounts of copper and its compounds which deposits on convection heating tubes and other components of the water-steam cycle. Details are given about problems in the water-steam cycle of plants with fluidised bed boilers.
Measurement and online monitoring of wear particles
Wear in machines and gearboxes produces metallic parts that are transported in the oil circuit and can permanently cause damage to the machine components. This problem can be identified through online monitoring of the particle size distribution in the oil, a procedure that supplements vibration-based condition monitoring, especially in low-speed roller bearings and gearboxes.
Brief report on the activities of VGB PowerTech in 2010/2011
VGB PowerTech e.V., briefly VGB, founded in 1920, is the European technical association for heat and power generation. The work of VGB largely depends on the many backers and employees in the companies and office who, for example, manage and support the activities of the committees of VGB´s Competence Centres “Nuclear Power Plants”, “Fossil-fired Power Plants”, “Renewables and Distributed Generation” and “Environmental Technology, Chemistry, Safety and Health”. VGB is also involved in power plant research via its research foundation and promotes important topics with funds from its member companies. In addition to this work, VGB organises seminars, symposia, conferences and the annual Congress “Power Plants”. These conferences are further platforms for the international exchange of experience - just like the journal at hand.