Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 1-2/2010
The Future Electricity Generation from Coal - High Efficiency and Decarbonisation
Gerhard Seibel, Matthias Neubronner, Clemens Tauber and Peter Radgen
The future of energy production is fraught with major challenges to overcome. E.ON takes these challenges seriously, and outlines clear corporate- and energy-related policy positions in its white paper entitled "Energy 2030". The company is focusing on restructuring its generation portfolio in order to protect the environment, and has set an objective of producing more than 50 % of generated output CO2-free by 2030. The current construction of high-efficiency gas- and coal-fired power plants and the commercial implementation of 700 degree technology and CCS technology after 2020 constitute essential steps toward achieving this objective.
Potential and Acceptance of Hydro Power in Europe
Karl-Heinz Gruber, Hans Rudolf Töni, Andreas Kunsch und Martin Fink
The paper shows the possible contribution of hydro power to reach the targets given by the European Union in 2009 regarding the increase and the support of renewable energies. Based on the currently existing hydro power generation within the European Union and within Croatia, Norway and Switzerland (which are relevant countries to the use of hydro power within Europe) the still possible increase of hydro power regarding technical and economical parameters and therefore the possible contribution to reach the European objective are presented. Since public acceptance is a major factor for the realisation of further hydro power projects, pros and cons of energy generation through hydro power are presented.
Pumped Storage in the Future Power Supply System
Peter Vennemann, Lothar Thiel and Hans-Christoph Funke
Pumped storage plants (PSP) supply up to several GW of power and several ten GWh of capacity. Short start-up times and low start-up costs predestine PSP for the control energy market. Grid charges for PSP endanger the further integration of renewable energy and lead to higher electricity supply costs. Therefore, an amendment of legislation is urgently required. Requirements for building large PSP are met at numerous sites in the low mountain ranges of Germany.
Strategy and Projects of DONG Energy
Jens Erik Pedersen
Carbon dioxide emission is one of the biggest challenges of the energy sector today. DONG Energy's vision is to produce and supply reliable energy without CO2. The vision will be reached by combining our present strategy on a broader application of technologies and geographical spread with the objective of reducing our carbon dioxide emission per MWh by 50 % in 2020 and 85 % in 2040 compared to 2006. In order to reach that objective we will increase the share of renewables and CO2-neutral energy in our power production by investing in mainly offshore wind power and converting our existing coal-fired power plants to biomass-firing. Gas-firing is also an important means to secure reliable energy but only in the transitional period.
CEZ Group Strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe
CEZ is among the top ten European power utilities, from the number of customers and market capitalisation points of view, with a strong market position in the Czech Republic. CEZ power plants take advantage of low and relatively stable generation costs. A number of measures have to be taken to maintain competitiveness. Old fossil-fired plants will be replaced by new ones and the existing nuclear fleet is to be extended. A new portfolio of renewables is to be established.
The Growth Strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE's Strategy
Fritz Vahrenholt and Holger Gassner
Within the RWE Group RWE Innogy is responsible for the development, construction and operation of renewable power plants and for the growth of this business. In the context of the entire RWE growth strategy which runs under the headline "More growth, less CO2" RWE Innogy contributes in terms of CO2-free generation capacity and sustainable growth with its portfolio. The main regional focus is on Europe and the main technologies are wind (on- and off-shore), biomass and hydro. In addition the company also invests into new applications like bio-gas, geothermal and concentrated solar power plants.
An Overview on the Status of Final Disposal of Radioactive Waste Worldwide
Radioactive wastes arising from nuclear power production and from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research require careful management. Most of the activities related to the management of these wastes are established technology and are routine operation in many countries. Repositories for high-level long-lived wastes, of which none are yet in operation worldwide, are the only exception. However, also for these repositories significant progress has been made in a few countries, where sites have been selected and the licensing process is under way. Experience shows that progress of the repository projects is often not determined by science and technology but much more by the decision-making process involving politics and society.
Life Time Extension of Gas Turbine Hot Section Parts
Peter A. Huber
The most significant maintenance cost over the life of a gas turbine is replacement of hot section components when they reach the end of their useable life. Advanced repair technologies allow the extension of gas turbine component life without a negative influence on the gas turbine availability and without an increasing risk of machine failure. Refurbishment of hot section components can be carried out by OEMs in their repair shops or by independent repair companies. However, when the repair work is to be done in an independent workshop, it is a prerequisite that the operators ensure that financial benefits outweigh possible technical risks and that they have a sound knowledge of gas turbine materials, coating and repair technology.
Remaining Life Time Determination and Refurbishment of Gas Turbine Components - Methods, Measuring Data Acquisition and Data Assessment
Sjef Mattheij, Luc Gooren and Marius van der Gun
Hot section components of gas turbines are expensive consumables. In the past, repair and reconditioning of gas turbine components was predominantly focussing on the repair of mechanical damage. Today the focus is shifting to assessing the remaining life time expectancy in parallel with rejuvenation of base material and recoating of components. The presentation will use a number of examples to demonstrate the methods and measuring technologies that are used for the remaining life time analysis like 3D dimensional inspection, base material condition determination, wall thickness measurement technologies and others.
Development of a New Steam Temperature Control Logic for One-through Boilers
A new steam temperature control logic for supercritical once-through boilers was developed from the view point of simplicity similar to that of the conventional sub-critical drum type boilers. Water wall outlet steam temperature can be controlled more easily due to the specific heat capacity of steam being larger than the superheater outlet steam temperature. By dividing temperature control into two parts, one at water wall outlet by fuel flow and another at super- heater outlet by SH spray flow, boiler steam temperature control was much improved.
Operating Results for the Tray Absorber Installed by Babcock Noell GmbH at the Oxyfuel Pilot Plant at the Site of Schwarze Pumpe and Tray Retrofitting in Existing Plants
The desulphurisation process for the Oxyfuel pilot plant was developed on the basis of the long-term proven flue gas limestone scrubbing process for SOx removal and other pollutants. Current operating results show that SO2 removal degrees > 99.5 % could be achieved. The tray has also been retrofitted successfully to three existing absorber systems (twin-cycle absorber). The operating modes and removal degrees were considerably improved.
European Power Industry Experience of EN14181
David Graham et al. members of the VGB Emissions Monitoring Working Group
The European power industry experience of EN14181:2004 indicates that this new approach to the Quality Assurance of CEMs has generally increased the confidence in the accuracy of the monitoring results obtained and has provided a useful framework for operators to improve their monitoring arrangements. However, the basic premise that the Standard Reference Methods (SRMs) possesses zero uncertainty, combined with the lack of a bias test, can give rise to poor calibrations. Flexibility is also required for existing plant with non-ideal monitoring and/or sampling arrangements. The weekly data check that the operator must perform can be problematic. The definition of the Valid Calibration Range, as an arbitrary 10 % extension of the highest QAL2 value, is too restrictive and does not reflect the actual degree of process variability associated with large combustion plant.