Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 3/2020

We at VGB and PTS remain a reliable partner!

Oliver Then

In the wake of the Corona pandemic, private and public life has been largely paralysed in Germany and almost all parts of Europe and the world in recent weeks. The economy is also being increasingly affected. Some companies in the automotive industry have temporarily stopped production. Other industrial companies in other sectors followed.[more...]

Hydrogen as energy-carrier of the future?

Gerald Kinger

With “power-to-gas” technology, electricity is stored in chemical molecules. The first step in this technology is usually the electrolysis of water to produce green hydrogen, which can be used in different sectors, e.g. for green mobility, as energy storage or directly in industrial applications. Hydrogen plays an important role in the Austrian energy and climate strategy. As part of the “wind-to-hydrogen” research project, the application of mobility and an admixture of hydrogen to natural gas were tested in a 100 kW pilot plant in Austria. The electricity required for the electrolysis was provided by wind turbines. Results were subjected to a technical, ecological and economic evaluation. It was shown that the hydrogen production costs depend heavily on the hours of operation and the legal framework. The “power-to-gas” technology is not a cheap option to avoid CO2 emissions, but it offers unique solutions, especially for seasonal energy storage using the existing natural gas storage infrastructure.

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How can combustion-related problems impact water/steam quality?

Monika Nielsen and Folmer Fogh

To optimise the district heat production, flue gas condensation system was installed at three power plants, including the two new biomass-fired boilers at Skærbæk Power Plant. By cooling the flue gas below its dew point, its water vapor content is condensed in the condensation system. The condensation heat is released and then enters the district heating system where the condensate is collected in the scrubbing condenser. When the flue gas condensate was reused for the first time, problems arose in the water steam circuit which originated in high TOC values in the flue gas condensate. To find out more about the TOC in the flue gas condensate, an online TOC analyser was installed. A connection between the combustion in the furnace and the TOC levels in the flue gas condensate was quickly noticed. A solution to the high levels of TOC has been to solve the combustion problems in the furnace at low and transient load. During the overhaul in the summer 2019, this was optimised, and the TOC levels are now very low during stable and transient operation.

Hot Functional Tests – passivation of a primary circuit of Mochovce nuclear power plant Unit 3

Pavel Kůs, Martin Kronďák, Martin Skala, Alena Kobzová, Petr Brabec, Patricie Halodová, Janka Mihóková, Štefan Tkáč and Anna Černá

A methodology for creation and evaluation of a protective passivation layer on the inner surfaces of the primary circuit in a nuclear power plant is described. First, a theory and technological procedure of the formation of a protective oxidic corrosion layer during hot functional tests is described. These are illustrated in the example of hot functional tests at the Unit 3 of Mochovce nuclear power plant. The successful passivation is confirmed through analysis of the formed layer. The evaluation of the successful passivation based on the characterization of the corrosion layer is shown. Based on the proposed chemical program, passivation was carried out at Unit 3 of Mochovce nuclear power plant. The resulting passivation layer was characterized by using selected analytical methods. The analytical techniques used were chosen to be complementary to each other, which contributes to the complexity of the sample evaluation. The conclusion of the evaluation was that a high-quality protective passivation layer, which corresponds with the industrial practice, was developed during hot functional tests.

Effect of moisture types on fuel flowability

Patrycja Slotte, Paweł Leśniewski, Kari Peltola, Marcin Klajny and Vesna Barišić

Flowability is a key parameter affecting handling and transportability of a fuel, and therefore affecting the design of fuel storage and feeding systems. Consequently, a proper function of fuel handling systems greatly affects availability and reliable operation of a power plant. Each fuel type has its unique properties, among which moisture, and especially surface moisture, is recognized as a main parameter to hinder the flowability and mixing in silos and fuel conveyors. To address the above, different definitions of moisture and moisture determination methods were discussed. Preliminary experimental results of the effect of moisture on fuel flowability were shown. The experimental tests were carried out for coals of different rank and origin.

Combustion of solid recovered fuels in a semi-industrial circulating fluidized bed pilot plant – Implications of bed material and combustion atmosphere on gaseous emissions

Martin Haaf, Andreas Müller, Antonio Unger, Jochen Ströhle and Bernd Epple

The application of fluidized bed (FB) systems for the combustion of waste derived fuels, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF), is a well-established method. The moderate combustion temperatures in FB boilers reduce the formation of NOx while the gaseous emissions of sulfur and chlorine species can be effectively limited by the feed of additives directly into the bed. In contrast to conventional solid fuels such as lignite or hard coal, SRF contains increased quantities of critical fuel constitutes such as chlorine, heavy metals and alkaline metals. Moreover, the composition and quality of the fuel is highly heterogeneous. Thus, it is challenging to characterize the combustion behavior and the formation of gaseous emissions based on the elementary fuel composition. Therefore, experimental investigations are inevitable to assess the combustion of SRF in novel applications. This paper gives an overview of experimental investigations on the combustion of SRF in a semi-industrial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) pilot plant. Two different types of SRF were burnt in oxygen enriched air and oxyfuel atmosphere while using silicate sand and limestone as bed material. These environments are expected to prevail in carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes such as stand-alone CFB oxyfuel combustion, or CFB oxyfuel combustion in the calciner of the calcium looping (CaL) process for post-combustion CO2 capture.

Fluid structure interaction analysis of a surge-line using coupled CFD-FEM

Muhammad Abdus Samad, Xiang bin li and Hong lei Ai

The mixing with different-temperature water in the pressurizer surge line may result in thermal stratification, then the significant deformation of the solid structure due to different thermal expansion at different parts of the structure perhaps occur, which will be a threat for the plant safety. To better understand the coupling mechanism, the corresponding characteristics in a pressurizer surge line is analyzed using CFD software. The fluid temperature distribution is calculated first, then the corresponding thermal and mechanical characteristics are analyzed. It is found that a large steady state stress present at the edges of the main pipe and the pressurizer, the consequent deformation showed large displacement at the center of the surge line.

The test plan according to § 4 II g) EU-VO (2017/2196) and upstream EU-VO’s from an IT/cyber security perspective for utilities

Stefan Loubichi

Various binding EU regulations such as (EU) 2017/1485, (EU) 2016/631 and (EU) 2017/ 2196 show the energy market that the European Union is serious about the concrete harmonization in terms of security for the energy sector. The interesting thing is that the regulations address both network operators and energy producers. What is strange, however, is that some players in energy market either do not (want to) know these regulations or classify them as non-binding. At the last possible point in time (19th of December in 2019), the four transmission system operators agreed on a test plan for the implementation of the requirements from the EU Regulation (EU) 2017/2196. In this article, we focus on the aspects of the test plan that are relevant for IT / OT security:

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The future of nuclear: The role of nuclear in the upcoming global energy transition

Hans-Wilhelm Schiffer

The paper presents the main findings, which the World Energy Council (the Council) presented in a paper on The Future of Nuclear: Diverse Harmonies in the Energy Transition with contributions from the World Nuclear Association and the Paul Scherrer Institute. In this report, the future of nuclear is described through the lens of the Council´s World Energy Scenarios archetype framework – Modern Jazz, Unfinished Symphony and Hard Rock – in three plausible, alternative pathways for the future development of the sector. This report also describes implications for the role of nuclear energy in the global energy transition. Nuclear energy could take three different pathways within the upcoming decades. In the main part of this paper – following a brief section on the current role of nuclear in the global energy supply – the characteristics of the three scenarios including the methodology underlying their quantification, and the key findings of the identified future pathways are explained. A comparison of the global results of the EIA´s International Energy Outlook 2019 (U.S. Energy Information Administration) and the IEA´s World Energy Outlook 2019 (International Energy Agency) and a conclusion are presented.

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