Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 6/2017
Editorial: VGB Congress 2017 – Generation in Competition
The transition of the energy markets faces our companies with the challenge of positioning themselves and their plants in a changing and uncertain market environment. From the perspective of VGB PowerTech, it is imperative to further improve power generation, preserve and extend its profitability, and to ensure the safe, secure and climate-friendly power supply, as expected, requested and governed by the public and politics. [more...]
Sensor technology on existent and temporary used components in steam generators with difficult fuels
Joos Brell, Marie Kaiser, Dominik Schneider, Sabine Hohmuth and Stephan Taubner
Sensor technology is becoming a more and more important part in operating modern power plants. The use of difficult fuels is increasing the challenges for operating power plants. The paper describes the experience in the development and application of sensor-system-technology in the study of temperatures and temperature ranges on material surfaces of structural components and their significance for questions relating to material or operational optimization of structural components. Besides using this temperature-sensor-system on existent components it can also be used in probes, which imitate structural components.
A high-pressure evaporator test facility for stationary and transients events in heated pipes
Gerrit A. Schatte, Andreas Kohlhepp, Tobias Gschnaidtner and Hartmut Spliethoff
Due to the strong temperature dependence of the material properties of supercritical fluids, supercritical heat transfer can either be enhanced or deteriorated when compared to normal single phase heat transfer. In the literature, there are models for the prediction of the heat flux density leading to a deterioration of heat transfer and for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient at supercritical pressures. These models partially yield contradictory calculation results. The High Pressure Evaporation Rig HIPER provides the opportunity to generate experimental heat transfer data at supercritical pressures at a wide range of different pressures, mass flux densities and heat flux densities. The parameters can be adjusted to the conditions found in a variety of supercritical power plants. For coming investigations with the test rig, the experimental quantification of the boundary between normal and deteriorated heat transfer is of particular interest.
Environmental testing of fly ash for concrete in Germany – a really new approach?
Udo Wiens and Hans-Joachim Feuerborn
In it’s judgement against the Federal Republic of Germany the European Court of Justice considered that the Construction Products Directive was infringed through the Construction Products Lists. As a consequence a revision to the Building Codes of the federal states in Germany was initiated. In consequence, the Construction Products List B Part 1 will be abrogated as soon as the new and notified Administrative Provisions – Technical Building Rules (VV TB) come into force. The new technical building rules provide only requirements for a set of environmental parameters for fly ash when is used in concrete. For the implementation of these requirements a technical guideline of the German Committee for Structural Concrete is under development.
Implementation of Basic Work Requirement 3 in harmonised product standards – update on CEN/TC 351 for test procedures and status of work in CEN/TC 104/WG4 for implementation into EN 450-1
Angelo Saraber and Udo Wiens
The Construction Products Regulation (CPR) entered force in July 2013 and requires i. a. the implementation of Basic Work Requirements No 3 on “Hygiene, Health and the Environment” into harmonised product standards such as e.g. EN 450-1 for fly ash for concrete. A precondition for this work is the availability of horizontal test standards which are developed in CEN/TC 351. For the basic evaluation of bound and unbound products three technical specifications have been developed. Another method is for the release of volatile organic compounds into indoor air. Also for testing radioactivity a horizontal test standard was developed. 104/WG 4 “Fly ash for concrete” started the work on existing (notified) regulations and prepared a first proposal for the implementation of BWR3 into EN 450-1 for fly ash for concrete.
DOC reduction by ion exchange and reverse osmosis – Operating results of a make-up water treatment plant
For a new project of a renewable energy plant an extension of the make-up water treatment plant was planned. Due to the analyses of the water steam cycle the reduction of the TOC/DOC (Total Organic Carbon/Dissolved Organic Carbon) was necessary. After discussion of the actual operating situation and the tests the general design the system was done. The make -p water treatment plant with the steps filtration and demineralization by ion exchange followed by a reverse osmosis system was realized. A special item was the integration of a “scavenger unit” in the ion exchange system. This article present the results of the test and the operation of the plant. The chosen technologies – ion exchange and reverse osmosis – are combined to a useful, functional, economic and strong system to reduce the TOC/DOC beside the demineralization.
Implementation and certification of IT security management systems according to ISO 27001 in the energy industry
After the WannaCry attack on the 12th of May 2017 as the biggest cyber attack in history or the attack on the Ukrainian electricity network on the 23rd of December, 2015, we know that there is no industry that is safe from cyber attacks. In 2015 the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has defined with the IT security act and the critical infrastructures regulation how IT critical industries like the power industry must address the IT related risks and how this must be proved. For this purpose, enterprises of the energy industry must implement a management system according to the ISO 27001 in conjunction with the governmental IT security catalogue of the energy industry. This management system has to be audited annually by independent certification bodies with auditors approved for the energy industries. This article provides answers on how to implement the management systems, what to consider during the process of certification and the benefits of such a management system.
Experience with metal anchoring systems for refractory linings in plants of energy and environment
Matthias Trost, Jan Mommsen and Gereon Lüdenbach
Anchoring systems for refractory lining in power plants in the area of energy and environmental plants are constructive elements and should principally be adapted to the frame conditions of the plant. If in case of damage there are an anchor failure, it also has immediate influence on the refractory lining and a consequence is several days of unplanned outage. In case of large renovations or new constructions it is important to consider the choice of anchoring concept already in the planning phase and at the time of contract conclusion. This article describes the basic requirements in the anchoring and the stressing influence factors with the resulting construction issues, and it indicates methods of solution. Many damages at refractory linings can be traced to failure in the anchoring. Here some practical examples of damages are shown, that repeatedly occurred in power-plant.
Wind Energy in Germany and Europe – Status, potentials and challenges for baseload application. Part 1: Developments in Germany since 2010
Thomas Linnemann and Guido S. Vallana
One essential physical property of wind energy is its large spatiotemporal variation due to wind speed fluctuations. As a result, the total wind fleet output of 18 European countries extending over several thousand kilometres in north-south and east-west direction is highly volatile and exhibits a strong intermittent character. An intuitively expectable significant smoothing of this wind fleet ouptput does not occur. In contrast, a highly intermittent wind fleet power output showing significant peaks and minima is observed not only for a single country, but also for the whole of the 18 European countries. Wind energy therefore requires a practically 100 % backup. Part two of this study is under preparation. It covers the analysis of the situation all over Europe.
General overhaul of a Stoeckicht planetary gear train of a steam turbine during the annual revision
Increased vibration values were measured at a steam turbine in operation. Subsequent testing with video-endoscopy of the planetary gear unit showed signs of wear on some components. Within four weeks in total BRAUER Maschinentechnik AG from Bocholt dismantled the gearbox from the plant, completely overhauled it and put into operation after reinstallation. Damaged interior parts of the gearbox were replaced during the overhaul.