Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 6/2018
Editorial: VGB Congress 2018 & IERE Workshop: Power Generation in Transition
The transition of the energy markets faces our companies with the challenge of positioning themselves and their plants in a changing and uncertain market environment. What is new about the current and globally visible processes of change is the multitude of topics raised at the same time and their relevance to areas beyond pure energy supply: Digitisation, flexibility, security of supply, energy storage, decentralisation, integrated energy supply across consumption sectors, mobility, climate protection and, of course, market design are some of the important aspects worthy of mention.[more...]
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union – What had to be considered until 25 May 2018
With the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union there will be the beginning of a new chapter in history of data protection. With the beginning of May 25, 2018 we will have harmonized regulations in the European Union. With penalties up to 20 million euros and imprisonment up to 3 years, the data protection will have a high priority in future. In this essay, at the beginning we present the subject-matter and objectives, material and terri-torial scope and the principles relating to processing of personal data. The rights of the data subjects changed with the GDPR, so that we provide the new regulations. As well in the new GDPR there will be more duties for controller and processor.
Diesel under pressure: New screw pump for high-pressure applications
Oliver Troßmann and Ralf Richter
The fuel supply of large gas turbines requires high demands on pump technology. This is mainly due to two challenges associated with: the primarily used fuels kerosene and diesel, which have extremely low viscosities (these barely exceed the 3cSt mark), and the high delivery pressures, which typically lie between 130 and 180 bar. In combination with the required flow rate, which can exceed 3,000 l/min for the most powerful large turbines, the result is a requirement profile that only a few pump types can meet today. With a screw pump series specially developed for this and similar applications, a modern, highly efficient and durable solution has now been created.
Testing and regeneration of SCR-catalysts in view on their mercury-oxidation-potential
Tobias Schwämmle, Thorsten Dux and Xin Liu
SCR-catalysts provide a crucial contribution for the reduction of mercury emissions of power plants by oxidizing elemental mercury, which can then be removed in downstream air pollution control devices. The performance of an SCR-catalyst is influenced on one hand by the production but on the other hand by the operation in flue gas. In this paper, the regular measurement of the performance of SCR-catalysts in the lab related to Hg-oxidation is shown and influences on the Hg-oxidation at SCR-catalysts in flue gas are discussed. Additionally, the effects on SCR-management are shown. Finally, the catalyst regen-eration as one resource-saving method to get back the original Hg-oxidation performance of the catalyst is presented.
Flexible operation of power stations requires innovative materials and test methods
Claas Lehmkuhla and Otmar Klag
Fossil-fuelled power stations of the future will differ from existing plants in virtually all their components. In the past, design has focused on cutting costs and increasing efficiency. However, Germany’s energy transition has resulted in new framework conditions that call for entirely new modes of operation, emphasising operational flexibility in terms of load changes. Future plants will also be characterised by steep ramp-up and ramp-down gradients during cold and warm start-up operations, appropriately aligned instrumentation and control, low monitoring and maintenance efforts with effective use of manpower and significantly improved emission values. Development of innovative materials is part of this progress. To significantly increase the efficiency of coal-fuelled power stations, components need to withstand very high temperatures. Research projects such as the High-Temperature Material Test Track II, located at the large-scale power station in Mannheim (Grosskraftwerk Mannheim, GKM) have already supplied initial informative results on nickel-base alloys in applications involving temperatures up to 725°C. Collaborative projects such as the Konrad project, which researches solutions and operating strategies for firing and steam systems used for load balancing, build on these results. A method for testing high-temperature materials has already been found in the replication method, which enables reliable detection of long-term damage caused by creep.
Converting Coal to Biomass: Making the Energy Transition Feasible
Currently, we observe considerable societal pressure to reach national emission reduction goals across Europe. In Germany, the pathway to reducing coal generation has become a centerpiece of this debate. However, at this moment in time, Germany’s coal plants are still essential to meet the country’s energy demand and to bridge gaps in wind and solar generation to secure the supply. This supports one frequent argument in favor of keeping coal in the generation mix for as long as possible: consumers, including energy-intensive industry, need it to cover peaks of energy consumption irrespective of exterior conditions. But does this mean that we must rely on coal until wind, solar and storage technologies have been fully established as alternative, reliable energy sources?
Optimised energy supply concepts for public indoor swimming pools based on cogeneration units and/or solar absorbers
Claudia Werner and Ernst Jürgen Werner
This paper locates cost-efficient ways of the energy supply for public indoor swimming pools. In this regard, the relevance of current developments (cp. heat insulation, systems engineering) will be proven and evaluated with respect to the optimization of the dimensioning of combined heat and power units (CHP units) and/or solar absorbers affecting the cost-efficiency.
Heat transfer systems for novel nuclear power plant designs
Sebastian Vlach, Christoph Fischer and Herman van Antwerpen
This article focuses on work that involves designing or modifying heat exchangers that usually can be found in the auxiliary systems of any power plant. The basic premise of the article is to show that the software provides a one-stop solution for designing many types of heat transfer systems, where the interaction between various loops connected by heat exchangers can be assessed. This article especially addresses the audience among nuclear power plants as the quality control in the development of the software makes it most suitable for nuclear related work. Moreover, the software discussed in this article has the capability to do contaminant tracing, which could be very useful for nuclear contamination studies in designing specialized ventilation systems.
Ljungström AdvX™ heat recovery technology
Jonas S. Klingspor
LJUNGSTRÖM has developed a new technology, AdvX™ Heat Recovery Technology, that can extract a significant amount of additional energy from existing air preheaters (APH). The additional energy can be used in several beneficial ways including improving the boiler heat rate, evaporation of waste water and stack gas reheat. In addition, the AdvX™ Heat Recovery Technology provides several environmental benefits such as reduced NOx emissions, reduced PM emissions, reduced Hg emissions, almost complete removal of sulfur trioxide, a large reduction in fresh water consumption and WWT demand. AdvX™ Heat Recovery Technology also presents new operating flexibility for SCRs by making it possibly to operate at low loads without any adverse impact on the SCR catalyst.
100 CHP plants for Bottrop
Maren Wenzel, Mustafa Flayyih, Manfred Lange, Jörn Benthin, Frank Burmeister and Rolf Albus
Combined heat and power (CHP) plants, with their decentralised generation of heat and electricity, can be an important contribution for climate protection and the energy revolution - especially when used in existing buildings. This fact is also confirmed by the German government in its energy concept: By 2025 at least 25 percent of the electricity provided in Germany should come from CHP plants. The Gas and Heat Institute Essen e.V. (Gas und Wärme-Institut Essen e.V., GWI) has investigated the benefits of various CHP plants in a pilot project. For this purpose, 100 systems were installed in the city of Bottrop and equipped with measuring and data technology. As a result, CO2 emissions were reduced by 40 percent and primary energy requirements by 26 percent. In this way, the project makes an important contribution to the success of the energy and heat transition and is therefore part of the state-wide KlimaExpo.NRW trade fair as a pioneer in climate protection.