Abstract - VGB PowerTech Journal 6/2019
Topics that matter
The global energy landscape is changing massively and presents all players with new challenges. Particularly noticeable is the change in the power supply sector and in our future mobility. While suitable technologies for mobility are being sought today, the change in power supply is obvious. This change is associated with strategic, organisational and technical challenges as well as a dynamic that has replaced the previous, virtually predictable or foreseeable development of electrical and thermal energy supply.[more...]
Simulation of the behaviour of real power generation plants in relation to fast frequency changes (RoCoF) according to the requirements of the current VDE-AR-N 4120:2018
Melanie Herzig, Bernd-Christian Pago, Christoph Neumann and Jens Paetzold
The VDE-application guide VDE-AR-N 4120 implements new requirements from the European Network of Transmission System Operators (ENTSO-E) for high voltage on national level. According to these new requirements, generating units must withstand a high Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) without disconnection from the grid. In this study, typical generating units used in industrial settings are investigated regarding their RoCoF withstand capability to identify the feasibility of the new requirements. Further investigations show whether the transient stability of the system is still guaranteed.
Availability optimization through intelligent condition analysis
Thomas Borgmann, Kristin Abel-Günther and Christian Scharfetter
Based on the current requirement in the electricity and heating market, it is necessary for manufacturers to provide steam turbine sets with a holistic/integrativ concept for effectiveness, flexibility, availability and service over a period of more than 10 years. MAN is implementing this with a range of steam turbine sets from a modular system, which, supplemented with maintenance services in the package, is equipped with a guarantee for the required availability. To achieve availability over several years, an irds® intelligent remote diagnostics system is used. MAN can look back on more than 15 years of experience in remote service support, about 350 systems that are already equipped with irds® and that enable automatic recording, transmission and analysis of operating data as well as regular and event-driven analysis by MAN PrimeServ.
Gas Engine Oils – Factors influencing the aging behaviour and the oil life in typical power plant applications
Hendrik Karl and Kathrin Kolba
Driven by political and economic conditions, the increasing use of gas engines as a replacement for gas and steam turbine technology in industrial and heating power plants is currently being observed. Operation in stationary gas engines places special demands on engine oil. High combustion temperatures, varying gas qualities and the desired continuous operation require tailor made additives and thermally highly stable base oils. There are demands for enough cleanliness in the engine, minimal wear and long oil change intervals in contrast to the lowest possible ash contents (LowSAPS). The aim of this contribution is the presentation of specific properties of gas engine oils compared to turbine oils with a focus on typical oil aging processes in internal combustion engines and expected oil life time. A brief overview of the recommended oil analysis paired with explanations on engine and oil condition based on practical examples serves as an introduction to the subject of oil monitoring.
CFD analysis and optimization of a multi-fuel burner
Roland Eisl and Hannes Lippert
Blast furnace gas is a by-product in the process of iron making and is utilized as a fuel in power plants. Due to its low heating value special requirements for the burner design are necessary. The design of a multi-fuel burner for blast furnace gas, coke oven gas and natural gas is an even more challenging task. In an existing power plant those multi-fuel burners show malfunctions for certain load cases. Asymmetric flames and incomplete burnout are observed, which decrease the plant’s efficiency. Further, increased maintenance is necessary due to soot depositions as well as deformation and destruction of baffle plates and burner lances. CFD studies were conducted to identify the key problems of the current burner set up.
Experience of FTR technology for optimizing cleaning of the boiler
Naftaly Menn, Boris Chudnovsky und Alex Ditiatkovsky
FTR technology, recently suggested for real time monitoring of fouling thickness and reflectivity in the drum type boiler furnace of 550 MW unit, Israel Electric Company with vertically aligned water tubes and bituminous coal burning, has been implemented during pilot project on supercritical 450 MW unit in Germany, where the furnace is assembled with spiral aligned water wall tubes designed for lignite. Results of three months of continuous operation demonstrated that both thickness and reflectivity of the fouling, created during boiler operation with a lignite coal, can be monitored in real time in different furnace zones. The fouling dynamics was registered when data have been collected from both the upper and the downstream of the tubes.
Flexibility and renewable energies in district heating systems – increasing demand due to the “Wärmewende”
Marc Jüdes and Nico Schmitt
Today, district heating already plays an important role in the heating market and is crucial for the current efforts of energy and climate policy. The necessary further development of existing district heating systems towards sustainable and – with regard to sector coupling – flexible systems is, however, a great challenge for district heating utilities. Since district heating is in competition with individual heating systems in the heating market, financial challenges cannot be tackled by raising customer prices. Therefore, the decarbonization of district heating systems currently takes place mainly through a fuel change from coal to gas. Since neither the expansion of sectoral coupling nor the greater flexibility of district heating systems on the electricity side can generate significant earnings contributions for companies in the current regulatory and energy environment, there is hardly any further development of these two aspects. To counter this, the flexibility of a combined heat and power district heating system would have to be given a higher value. Furthermore, district heating and heating systems of individual objects need to be treated equally, a so called “level-playing-field” needs to be created.
Model-based studies on the use of renewable energy systems in the energy supply of alpine ski and hiking areas
Claudia Werner and Ivo Schillig
Energy supply variants based on renewable energy systems are examined, viz. photovoltaic and wind power systems, for special use in ski and hiking areas in the Swiss Pre-Alps, Alps and Southern Alps. For this purpose, a specially developed model is introduced to open up the possibility of variant calculations. This model connects the characteristics of the ski and hiking areas, the characteristics of the energy supply variants including the selected renewable energy systems and the existing economic and technical conditions. Moreover, the model considers current statistics as well as climate scenarios/predictions of the alpine regions in order to analyse the present and future significance of the selected renewable energy systems within the energy supply of the alpine ski and hiking areas. On this basis, the resulting effects of the renewable energy systems in current and future energy supply are discussed by using a selected example.
IEC 62443 – Industrial Security
This essay begins by explaining the difference by IT and OT. With this knowledge we can realize the differences between the IT related to ISO/IEC 27001 and the OT/IASC related to IEC 62443. IEC 62443 is determined by the defense-in-depth approach with the principle of least privilege and the principle of least route. The IEC 62443 family consists of 13 different standards. In opposite to the ISO 270xx there are few certifications, because IEC 62443 certification is more than difficult. By the upcoming IT-security-law 2.0 the number of certification will increase. Penalties up to 20,000,000 EUR related to the new IT security law have to be considered as well.