Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 10/2020
100 years VGB: Welcome address
I am very pleased about the invitation to the 100th anniversary of VGB PowerTech.
I very much welcome the fact that VGB PowerTech will not miss the opportunity to celebrate this anniversary despite the Corona Pandemic – on a small scale on the Energy-Campus Deilbachtal and with the online guests live on screen. I am glad and relieved that strict hygiene measures – as they are also observed on site – make it possible to be together and that digital technology also allows us to meet virtually.[more...]
Global aspects on coal combustion products
David Harris, Craig Heidrich und Joachim Feuerborn
As global energy demand and electrification rates increase, coal remains the most abundantly consumed fossil fuel for the production of electrical power. At the same time, international agreements and local policies are driving a transition towards alternative energy sources, with a central focus on reducing CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. Coal combustion by products are well established as valuable, high volume inputs for the manufacture of construction and building materials. They provide functional benefits in these applications and, as substitutes for energy intensive materials such as cement, sand and aggregates, they provide options for lower embedded carbon. The paper is jointly written by members of the World Wide Coal Combustion Products Network and is the result of an ongoing, international collaboration between respective country industry associations, being non-governmental organizations (NGO’s).
Developments in CCP management in Europe
Ivan Skidmore and Joachim Feuerborn
About half of the European energy production is based on fossil fuels. The energy strategies of the European Commission require CO2 reduction, increased production by renewables and energy savings. Each member state has its own answer for CO2 savings due to dependencies in coal-fired generation from zero to about 85 %. Also energy security has to be considered starting with fuel availability, economics in production and grid stability. The report gives an update on developments of regulations impacting the production of energy by coal-fired power plants and also quality and quantity of CCPs.
Production and utilisation of coal combustion products
Coal combustion products are produced during the generation of electricity in coal fired power plants. In the last years more than 20 million tonnes per year were produced and utilised in Germany. CCPs like boiler slag, bottom ash, fly ash or FGD gypsum were used since many years as quality controlled raw material or building material in the construction industry or in civil engineering as well as for restoration and reclamation purposes in open cast mines. The power plant operators spent much effort in producing a quality material which can easily be utilized. This leads to high utilization rates of about 96 to 100 percent. This article gives an overview about the results of the VGB survey “Production and utilisation of CCPs in Germany” of the years 2008 to 2019.
Implementation of Basic Requirement 3 in harmonized product standards – update on CEN/TC 351 for test procedures and status of work in CEN/TC 104/WG4 for implementation into EN 450-1 –
Udo Wiens and Angelo Saraber
The Construction Products Regulation (CPR) entered force in July 2013 and requires i. a. the implementation of Basic Work Requirements No 3 on „Hygiene, Health and the Environment“ into harmonized product standards. A precondition for this work is the availability of horizontal test standards which are developed in CEN/TC 351. As the standards are available as CEN/TS and will enter the CEN-enquiry route at the beginning of next year for conversion into ENs the work for implementation of existing regulations for construction products can be started. TC 104/WG 4 „Fly ash for concrete“ started the work on existing (notified) regulations and prepared a proposal for the implementation of BWR3 into EN 450-1 for fly ash for concrete. This contribution is to update on the development in CEN/TC 351 and CEN/TC 104/WG4 since 2017.
Wood fly ash as cement replacement – screening of different pre-treatments for optimization of WA characteristics
Lisbeth M. Ottosen, Benjamin Ebert, Nina M. Sigvardsen, Pernille E. Jensen and Gunvor M. Kirkelund
Two wood fly ashes (WAs) with different properties were tested for low level replacement (5 or 10 %) of cement in mortar. WA1 was sprayed with water directly after the incinerator at the plant, which resulted in hydration whereas WA2, which had not been sprayed did contain CaO. There is no current standard regulating use of WA as partly cement replacement, and thus EN 450-1, which is the current standard covering ashes from co-combustion of wood and coal, was used to evaluate the composition of the investigated WAs.
Implementation of the next generation slagging prediction tool to a large scale pf boiler fired with lignite blends
Piotr Plaza, Bernhard Schopfer, Jörg Maier, Thomas Brunne and Günter Scheffknecht
Changing quality of lignite may affect significantly the operation of modern large scale lignite fired pf boilers. One of the main risks is associated with decreasing ash quality and occurrence of the elevated slagging/fouling in a boiler. Firing a proper mixture of lignite coals or/and changing boiler operational conditions can mitigate the risk. This paper presents relevant results from the implementation and validation of the next generation slagging prediction tool in Boxberg power plant (Unit Q) fired with blends of Nochten and Reichwalde lignite. The use of slagging prediction tool developed combined with the online ash deposition monitoring probe can help operators avoid much of the uncertainty associated with decisions related to fuel selection and operating procedures in order to achive highly efficient boiler operation without elevated slagging risk.
Assessment of the nutrient and heavy metal content of wood ash from Bavarian heat (and power) plants
Hans Bachmaier, Daniel Kuptz and Hans Hartmann
Ashes from biomass heating (and power) plants that apply natural fuels may be suitable for the use as fertilisers if certain requirements regarding pollutants and nutrient contents are met. The range and average values of relevant nutrients and pollutants in wood ashes from Bavarian biomass heating and power plants were determined by on-site sampling. Quality assurance systems should be applied at biomass heating plants to improve ash quality if wood ashes should be used as fertilisers in agriculture. The analysis of the main nutrients showed high values for potassium and calcium, but also relevant amounts of phosphorus in wood ashes, making them suitable as fertilisers if pollutant limits are met.
Stratego. A treatment plant for the preparation of non-ferrous metal mixtures
In Germany, approximately 6 million tonnes of slag are produced annually in household and commercial waste incineration plants. Approximately 460,000 tonnes of metals can be recovered from these slags in special slag processing plants (SA plants). The development of increasingly efficient non-ferrous separators has also made it possible to recover metal particles in the fine range (0 to 3 mm). Due to the precious metals contained in the fine range, this grain spectrum requires special treatment which will be explained.
Hazardous property HP 14 of municipal waste incineration bottom ash
Hermann Nordsieck, Karsten Wambach, Ragnar Warnecke and Wolfgang Rommel
Incineration of residual municipal waste renders it inert and allows for energy recovery, but leaves huge amounts of incinerator bottom ash (IBA). Considering the amount of this stream of waste, proper assessment of hazardous properties has high importance. Eco-toxicity (HP 14) is the most critical hazardous property in the classification of waste incineration bottom ash. The work presented here is the basis of HP 14 assessment in the municipal waste IBA classification guidance issued by the German confederations of waste incinerator plants (ITAD) and IBA treatment plants (IGAM).
A journey through 100 years VGB | The early years, 1920ies and 1930ies
- The foundation of the VGB 1920
- Avoidance of double work. Progress in America. Operation experience
- Operating experience in the Moscow Municipal Power Plant
I. W. Nikolaew