Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 11/2018
Innovation in power generation
It´s our objective to support the energy supply system of tomorrow and to support our members in their responsibilities and business. We want to find and implement opportunities to shape the generation of electricity and heat more environmentally friendly, more efficient and more economical. This results in challenges that we will solve with the operating experience of the industry, the experience from planning and construction of the plants and equipment as well as with research and development. [more...]
The future role of thermal electricity generation and storage of electricity in the Member States of the European Union – Security of supply with increasing shares of volatile renewable energies
The EU’s energy supply is changing. This is particularly true for electricity generation. This is true for all Member States. Differences in the energy mix between the 28 states of the Union can be explained in particular by the differing resource situation and the respective national orientation of energy policy. The energy future of the EU is determined by the energy and climate policy framework, which is characterised by targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the continued expansion of renewable energies and the improvement of energy efficiency. This is associated with additional challenges for system integration and the maintenance of security of supply. Solution options are the flexibilisation of conventional power plants, in particular coal and gas power plants, the expansion of network infrastructure, the flexibilisation of demand and energy storage. For the foreseeable future, conventional power plants will have to meet the vast majority of the growing flexibility requirements.The EU’s energy supply is changing. This is particularly true for electricity generation. This is true for all Member States. Differences in the energy mix between the 28 states of the Union can be explained in particular by the differing resource situation and the respective national orientation of energy policy. The energy future of the EU is determined by the energy and climate policy framework, which is characterised by targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the continued expansion of renewable energies and the improvement of energy efficiency. This is associated with additional challenges for system integration and the maintenance of security of supply. Solution options are the flexibilisation of conventional power plants, in particular coal and gas power plants, the expansion of network infrastructure, the flexibilisation of demand and energy storage. For the foreseeable future, conventional power plants will have to meet the vast majority of the growing flexibility requirements.
Experiences with co-combustion of heavies and bio-propan in the Maasvlakte 3 power plant
Reiner Puls, Ralf Langen, Daniel Lauwen, Dammis Boutkam, Ralf Schuster and Bernd Leßmann
Due to the shutdown of Maasvlakte 1 and 2 in mid-2017, several retrofit measures were necessary for unit 3 in order to continuously supply the chemical industry in the neighbourhood with steam and to continue to burn Heavies and Biopropane. All burners at burner level 50 were modified to allow co-combustion of Biopropane and two burners at level 20 were modified so that Heavies could be co-fired. During the first two months of operation some problems occured which were later fixed. Heavies and Biopropane can now be co-fired reliably and all challenges connected to the installation of the co-combustion system for these uncommon fuels have been overcome.
Natural impacts on the quality of wood-fuels and their effects on the operation of wood-fired cogeneration plants
Harald Thorwarth, Hannes Gerlach, Laurin Rieger, Maximilian Schroth, Rainer Krichhof and Julian Tejada
Fuel costs account for a considerable proportion of the total operating costs in the operation of wood-fired cogeneration plants,. In addition to this direct influence on profitability, the quality of the wood fuels has an effect on the operating and maintenance costs as well as on the efficiency and emission. Thus, the use of fuel causes further indirect costs depending on the quality of the fuels used in addition to the direct costs. The quality of fuels is therefore an important aspect in the operation of wood-fired combined heat and power plants. This applies both to the use of waste wood and to untreated wood. Therefore, more and more quality parameters are agreed in supply contracts between plant operators and fuel suppliers, and more and more often they are checked on delivery as the volume increases.
New water saving FGD technology in South Africa: CFB FGD demonstration plant
Annikie Moganelwa, Puseletso Godana and Sabrina Schäfer
Water availability is increasingly becoming an important question, especially in a country such as South Africa which is one of the driest countries globally. Worldwide, water saving technologies for the desulphurisation of flue gases are increasingly becoming motivating alternatives as water is a scarce and precious resource. A demonstration plant is in the evaluation and planning stages at Eskom’s Kendal Power Station to evaluate the operation of the semi-dry FGD technology, namely the Circulating Fluidised Bed FGD, within South African specific conditions. Implementation of a demonstration plant presents several benefits and advantages for Eskom.
DeNOx utilizing Urea to Ammonia (U2A), operating experience leading to significant rupture of main ammonia delivery line
Utilising the Wahlco Urea to Ammonia (U2A) process for on-demand generation of gaseous ammonia, ESB at their Moneypoint coal fired power station abate NOx to Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) levels. Combining SCR technology with this on-demand gaseous ammonia mixture as the process reagent avoids many of the regulatory complications associated with the transportation of Anhydrous or Aqueous Ammonia to site and storage of same onsite. However a pertinent process hazard of such a U2A system is the unintentional cooling of the hot gaseous ammonia mixture, leading to condensation and even solids formation within the ammonia delivery piping system.
Ultra-high voltage energization of electrostatic precipitators for coal fired boilers
Mads Kirk Larsen
Strict air pollution control are today high on the agenda worldwide. By reducing the particular emission, also parts of mercury and other hazardous matters attached to the particles will be reduced. Furthermore, it is possible to catch the fine particles. For particulate control, the precipitators are still the preferred choice and much efforts have been done to improve the efficiencies. Many ESP’s have seen electrical upgrading by changing the traditional 1 phase power system into either 3 phase or SMPS (High Frequency) units. However, there exist a 4th type of power supply – the micro pulse type. This is unfortunately widely unknown, but may be of great benefit to power plants. The FLSmidth type is called COROMAX® and it is a high voltage pulse generator for precipitators using a semiconductor switch operating at medium potential. The generated high voltage pulses have rated amplitude of 80 kV and duration of 75 μs and are superimposed on a variable base voltage of 60 kV rated voltage. Hereby, achieving a peak voltage of 140 kV.
Description of the fuel transport in the feeding area of waste incineration plants
Part 1: fuel and influence of fuel variations
Martin H. Zwiellehner, Florian Grafmans und Ragnar Warnecke
Basically the publication is divided into 2 parts. The present part 1 is dealing especially with the fuel properties and its influences on the feeding process. The 2nd part is focusing on a physical-mechanical approach for deriving a mass flow formula which makes it possible to precalculate the actual fuel mass flow in consideration of several effects and parameters. The most significant problem for combustion control systems which are implemented in waste incineration plants is the lack of knowledge about the actual calorific value (CV) of the fuel which is fed into the combustion chamber. Actual fuel inventory on the grate is also not known. Lots of studies do exist for „standard fuels” like coal and natural gas. For the inhomogeneous fuels which is dealt with in this publication (MSW , solid biomass, RDF ) there is no such literature available. The design of thermal treatment facilities respectively their furnace is done empirically – like in other incineration plants – by applying parameters of the fuels and the throughput capacity.
N2O-emissions from circulating fluidised bed incineration plants
According to experts, the combustion processes inside the burning chamber of fluidized bed incinerators can lead to relatively high emissions of N2O due to the low combustion temperatures. This parameter is usually not measured as a part of the NOx estimation. Thus, BAT 5 of the concluded final draft WI BREF claims annual measurements of N2O emissions in fluidized bed incinerators and SNCR-units using urea. To identify the current situation in fluidized bed incinerators concerning N2O emissions, measurements were taken to estimate and assess the upcoming responsibility for measuring. As the results show, the series of measurements at five plants using the fluidized bed incineration technology lead to an average concentration of 5 mg/m³N. Contrary to the prevailing opinion, there are no increased concentrations of N2O to be noticed.
VGB Technical Services – Oil laboratory at Gelsenkirchen-Scholven site
VGB extends service portfolio
Since January 1, 2018, the former Uniper Technologies GmbH at the Gelsenkirchen-Scholven site became part of VGB´s Technical Services. This extension increases the VGB team by experienced and renowned oil management experts which perfectly match the portfolio of VGB´s Technical Services.