Abstracts - VGB PowerTech Journal 12/2020
Topic: Cyber security
Digitisation is closely linked to the transformation of the energy industry and energy generation. It is assigned a key role in the transformation of today’s energy supply. Among other things, digitisation should not only make processes, systems and plants in the energy industry more reliable, secure and efficient, it should also provide the basis for a closer “interconnection” of all systems in the energy system. [more...]
Electrifying transport – A global perspective
The Paris Agreement aims to achieve climate neutrality i.e. a balance between the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG sinks by the mid of this century. Since energy consumption is responsible for roughly three quarters of the global GHG emissions, there has always been a strong focus on the related GHG sources. The focus on the climate debate so far has been on electricity generation, but in the last years, also the future mobility is gaining increasing attention. The main technology options to achieve climate neutrality in the transport sector are electrification (electro-mobility, fuel cells or e-fuels i.e. liquid or gaseous synthetic fuels produced with electricity) and biomass. The electrification route is connected with power consumption, i.e. it will contribute to the Paris climate goal by using climate-neutral electricity production. A third option to achieve climate-neutral fuels is the combination of classic fossil fuels with carbon dioxide removal technologies.
Decarbonizing distributed power solutions
Klaus Payrhuber, Stephan Laiminger, Herbert Schaumberger, Carl Richers and Martin Schneider
Energy storage is one of the big challenges within the energy transition. Multiple technologies exist that can manage the storage of relatively small amount of energy over a short period of time, but technologies that have large storage capacities and can store energy over a long period of time providing seasonal storage are also required. Currently the production of green hydrogen from RES is the most promising solution for large (TWh capacity) and seasonal renewable energy storage. Energy stored as hydrogen directly or hydrogen-based fuels such as synthetic methane, green methanol, ammonia or other synthetic fuels are the options on the table. Maintaining a stable and steady energy supply that is mainly based on volatile RES requires a flexible and dispatchable backup solution. Battery energy storage solutions will be available but can only serve relatively small capacities and provide only hourly storage. Backup solutions based on fuels can provide large energy storage and especially for longer periods of time. Such fuels which will become 100 % renewable fuels over time, can be used in all kinds of established and mature technologies for centralized and distributed power generation, such as combined heat and power (CHP), in the transport sector, the heating sector and industry. For power generation, we call solutions based on renewable fuels dispatchable renewable energy sources (dRES).
Potentials of hydrogen-oxygen combustion to provide secondary reserves in steam power plants
N. Siwczak, D. Gustav, M. Höltermann, F. Dinkelacker and R. Scharf
In the context of energy transition, an increased demand for balancing power is expected to keep the grid frequency steady due to the unpredictable availability of fluctuating energy sources. The decommissioning of thermal power plant capacity will cause main suppliers of balancing power to be eliminated and alternative technologies will be required. In this paper, the potential of the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen is investigated, as the steam produced offers the possibility for these power plants to become more ecological by using green hydrogen and, as an alternative for throttling of turbine valves, provides an alternative to energy storage. By using stationary power plant simulation, the ideal location of steam injection for the hydrogen-oxygen-combustion is investigated. Furthermore, using kinetic reaction calculations, the reaction progress for various state parameters is determined in order to understand the formation of residual gases.
How to assess the control room system of a new NPP
Rainer Miller, Rodney Leitner, Sina Gierig and Harald Kolrep
The Olkiluoto nuclear power plant with two boiling water reactors in operation is located on the southern west coast of Finland. The plant is operated by the public Finnish energy company TVO. OL3 is in the commissioning phase. The EPR is a generation III+ pressurized water reactor. It is equipped with a fully digital control system (Process Information and Control System, PICS). During normal operation the plant is controlled from the control room via computer screens. A back-up system with conventional control panels and partly analogue displays and control elements is provided as a safety measure in case of incidents. With the aim to demonstrate, that within the control room all requirements related to Human Factors aspects of the operations are satisfactorily achieved, the plant supplier of OL3 has planned a final human factors test of the capabilities of the ‘control room’ system before fuel loading. The “Integrated Final Control Room System Validation (ISV)” has been performed in 2019. This article describes the planning and execution of the ISV, i.e. the aspects examined in the test and the methods used to measure the relevant variables. Hands-on experience from the execution of the validation is also reported.
Thermal decomposition characteristics of ethanolamine in high-temperature aqueous systems
Zhiping Zhu, Zhaoxin Huang, Zhifeng Liu and Youwei Song
The third generation of nuclear power is being vigorously developed worldwide. Ethanolamine is being tested for the possibility of becoming a pH control agent, but degradation data on ethanolamine for the elevated temperature and pressure conditions of the secondary loop in a nuclear power plant are limited. In this study, the thermal degradation rate and decomposition products of ETA within 50–300℃ were studied by ion chromatography and total organic carbon analyses. Results indicated that ETA had good thermal stability, and that thermal decomposition rate did not exceed 1%/h at 50–300℃ in the absence of dissolved oxygen. The thermal decomposition of ETA contaminated the steam–water cycle with low-molecular-weight organic acids, including glycolic, formic and acetic acids. The thermal decomposition mechanism of ETA confirmed by experiment was obtained.
Some notes about the application of statistics
The roots of statistics go back 5000 years into the past. The intended audience of this paper are engineers, practitioners, writers who are not primarily statisticians and naturally interested readers. For this reason, this paper is based on a rather heuristic approach to make the explanations easy to understand. The science of statistics deals with the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data. Statistics is based on the so-called induction, i.e. on the abstracting conclusion from an observed phenomenon to gain knowledge. The ways to achieve all these mentioned statistical aspects has to be seen under the influence of the economic efficiency of the statistical analysis in combination with the technological progress which can be reached. This script, will show the basic principle briefly, to realise a statistical test as one example of the application of a statistical method as part of the mathematical statistics. The role of statistics is, to test the hypotheses of theories to determine if they should be admitted into the accepted body of knowledge or not. This process is called “ hypothesis testing.” The examination of the statistical significance in relationship with the method of test statistic, the method of p-value for the testing hypotheses and the different uncertainties and errors will be discussed in this paper as an example for a better understanding and use of the statistical significance. Because a wrong interpretation the handling of the statistical significance etc. and the application of statistic in general can cause incorrect decisions with drastic consequences.
Conference Report: 52nd Power Plant Technology Colloquium
Juliane Jentschke and Michael Beckmann
Changes in our energy supply are far advanced; the outcome and course, however, are uncertain in many respects, a reversal is not wanted and even if it is, it does not seem reversible. The so-called energy turnaround is not yet proceeding like a successful project. This observation alone, however, does not lead anywhere. In the past - and this is still true today - open debates and competitions in connection with innovations have been leading the way in the development of human society. Open debate has been a core element of the Power Plant Technology Colloquium in Dresden for 52 years; the overarching theme of the last event in 2020 was Innovations in Energy Technology.
For the 52nd Power Plant Technology Colloquium on 6 and 7 October 2020, the organization team faced very special challenges. As early as spring 2020, a concept for an online event was developed, which then became a hybrid concept in the course of early summer. With a certified hygiene and event concept, almost 500 people were then able to participate on site. About 100 participants followed the event online. Accompanying the conference, 65 exhibitors presented themselves in the company exhibition. Under the given conditions, both the conference and the company fair were fully booked in presence.