Determination of Flue Gas Flow: Performance of Calculation Methods for a Wide Range of Fuels in Comparison with Measurements
Project Number 338
It is of great importance to have accepted calculation methods available with known uncertainties to generate reliable emission data. On the other hand emission data can be obtained through continuous measurement systems.
Currently, stack flow calculation is mostly used by operators firing well characterised fossil fuels and measurement is usually specified for waste incineration plant firing less well characterised fuels. At present a measurement based standard for determining of stack flue gas flow is being prepared by CEN TC 264 WG 23. However, it is recognised in this, and other, draft CEN standards that stack flow calculation can be an alternative approach. It is important that any specified calculation methods are accurate and can be universally applied.
The aim of this project is to twofold. First to make a soundly based decision to choose between calculation or measurement of flue gas flow. Secondly to harmonise the use of calculation methods for the flue gas flow rate of power plants and to make the calculation methods applicable for wider ranges of fuel.
The partners expect that, in most cases, calculation methods will be superior to measurement methods due to lower uncertainties. Operational costs should be reduced considerably since the installation of stack flow meters can be avoided and there may also be savings related to increased accuracy of flow calculation when trading schemes are in operation.
The project is split into five separate parts:
- Review of the European calculation methods and analysis of variations;
- Thermodynamic calculations; output based approach;
- Calculations based on fuel heating value and/or stoichiometry; input based approach;
- Determination by continuous measurements;
- Decision Support Matrix.
In the project the relationship between the calculation methods and the international standards DIN 1942 and EN 12952 will be established and documented. Also, to show the quality of the calculation methods through uncertainty calculations based on the input parameters and validation based upon available fuel measurements. On the basis of the report of this research, power plant operators will be able to make a balanced decision regarding which methods or measurement to use for flue gas flow determination.
The project is being carried out from August 2010 until May 2011 by:
- KEMA Nederland B.V. Arnheim (Frans Blank, Project manager)
- E.ON Engineering / UK, Ratcliffe-on-Soar
- Vattenfall AB, Stockholm
The project is supported by the European Working Group Emissions Monitoring.